Giant piezoelectric strain hysteresis and novel ferroelectric properties of (011) [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT, x≈0.32) single crystals

The ferroelectric (011) [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT, x≈0.32) single crystals show two giant reversible and stable remanent strain states and tunable remanent strain properties are achieved by properly reversing  the electric field from the depolarized direction. The unique piezoelectric strain response, especially along the [100] direction, mainly stems from the non-180º ferroelectric polarization  reorientation in the rhombohedral phase crystal structure. Such giant strain hysteresis with tunable remanent strain properties have enabled magnetoelectric memory devices as well as other low-power applications.